Dental Research Day

Abstracts

Fatimah Alssafi, Abeer R Alshehry, Renad Alshunaiber, Aljazy Alshubaiki, Hoda Alemam, Abed Al-Hadi Hamasha. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
Reviewing the dental literature, studies assessed gender differences in oral health behavior and attitude are scarce and limited to dental students. Attributable to lack of understanding of the gender differences in beliefs and behaviors among Saudi population, this study investigated variations in males and females beliefs and behaviors toward oral health and assessed the influence of oral health believes on the oral health behaviors among each gender.

Methods
A cross-sectional study was designed to obtain information from patients attending the outpatient clinics in King Abdulaziz Medical City. Of the 553 self-reported questionnaires, 519 were successfully received comprising 251 males and 268 females. The questionnaire consisted of demographic questions along with 25 questions about belief- and behavior-related oral health. The statistical analysis involved frequency distribution and chi square tests. P- value was considered was considered significant at value of less than 0.05.

Results
The participants expressed high beliefs of the importance of tooth brushing (95-98%), importance of carbohydrates to caries (92-93%) and importance of regular dental visits (90-94%). Despite the comparable beliefs among genders, females were found to act more positively than males in terms of tooth brushing (gap=18% vs. 31%), dental visits (gap=13% vs. 24%), and carbohydrate consumption (gap=15% vs. 23%).
When comparing beliefs and behaviors towards the importance of oral health styles we found a gap of 12-45% between those who believe of health behaviors and those who actually adopt them.

Conclusion
The study presents valuable information about the discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors among Saudi patients. It also indicated that females act more positively toward oral health than males. Educational campaigns that are conducted to increase the knowledge about oral health need to be replaced with other campaigns targeting shifting behaviors toward adopting healthier behaviors specifically among males.

Lolowh Almogbel, Prof. Abed Al-Hadi Hamasha,  Abeer Alshehri, Fatimah Alssafi, Hanan Alghamdi, Alanoud Alajmi, Dr. Zainul Rajion. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Objectives
Upon reviewing the literature, the prevalence of many systemic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis were reported to be high in Saudi Arabia.  The relationship of these conditions with tooth loss among Saudi population was not investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the relationship between tooth loss and most common medical conditions among Saudi dental patient.

Methods
The study participants were 250 Saudi patients who were randomly selected from the College of Dentistry database at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The participants were requested to fill self-administered questionnaires related to their demographic as well as general health questions concerned with systemic medical conditions, if present. Missing teeth were determined after examining the Orthopentagram radiographs and reviewing the Romexis ® and Salud software databases. Descriptive statistics, Independent t-test and multiple linear regression models were performed using SPSS software.

Results
The mean number of missing teeth among the study population was 5.8 teeth per person. Patients who reported diabetes, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, or osteoporosis have higher mean number of missing teeth compared with the subjects who are healthy. A multiple linear regression analysis model revealed that diabetes, hypertension and rheumatoid were significant predictors of missing teeth among Saudi population.

Conclusion
These results highlight the effect of medical conditions on loss of teeth.

Renad Abdulaziz Alshunaiber, Shahad Meaigel, Arwa Aldeeri, Haya Alzaid, Naila A. Shaheen, Abdallah Aadlan. College of Dentistry, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Objectives
To estimate the prevalence of self-medication for oral health problems, to identify the most commonly used medicaments, to identify sources of obtaining these medicaments and sources of information for using them, to identify the reasons of self-medication instead of seeking professional healthcare advice, and to identify the most common oral health predictors for self-medication

Methods
Cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire among adults visiting shopping malls in five regions of Riyadh. Two stages of sampling techniques were used; cluster and simple random sampling, of which Riyadh city was clustered into five regions and two shopping malls in each region were selected randomly. The questionnaire consisted of two main sections, demographic and questions assessing the practice of self-medication. The data was analyzed using SAS, in which interval variables were reported in terms of mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution for categorical variables. All categorical and interval variables were compared statistically using Chi-Square test for independence and T-test, respectively. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire among adults visiting shopping malls in five regions of Riyadh. Two stages of sampling techniques were used; cluster and simple random sampling, of which Riyadh city was clustered into five regions and two shopping malls in each region were selected randomly. The questionnaire consisted of two main sections, demographic and questions assessing the practice of self-medication. The data was analyzed using SAS, in which interval variables were reported in terms of mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution for categorical variables. All categorical and interval variables were compared statistically using Chi-Square test for independence and T-test, respectively. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire among adults visiting shopping malls in five regions of Riyadh. Two stages of sampling techniques were used; cluster and simple random sampling, of which Riyadh city was clustered into five regions and two shopping malls in each region were selected randomly. The questionnaire consisted of two main sections, demographic and questions assessing the practice of self-medication. The data was analyzed using SAS, in which interval variables were reported in terms of mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution for categorical variables. All categorical and interval variables were compared statistically using Chi-Square test for independence and T-test, respectively. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results
The majority of the 400 participants indicated the usage of self-medication for oral health problems (63.25%), with a higher percentage among females (69.44%). Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication (P-value 0.005 and 0.049). Salt in hot water locally (52.57%) and Paracetamol (47.43%) systemically were the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%). Similarly, the advice for using these medicaments was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%). Lack of time was reported to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55%), with abscess, toothache and gingival bleeding being the main predictors.

Conclusion
Self-medication was found to be a common practice. This could be a dangerous finding due to possible complications and delaying of proper intervention. Therefore, educational campaigns to raise the awareness, besides reinforcing the evidence based guidelines on medicaments utilization are required.

Abeer Al-Mthen, Amrita Geevarghese, Amal Almutairi, Amjad Alghaihab, Huda Alemam, Waad Alsaadi. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
Malocclusion has an effect on the oral health and on the quality of life by affecting the function, appearance, social life, and self-esteem of individuals. This study aimed to investigate malocclusion in 11-14-year-old patients attending King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and its impact on their oral health-related quality of life using oral health quality of life measure (OHRQoL).

Methods
A cross-sectional study survey was used. The sample included were children 11-14 years old from King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) and two public female schools of Riyadh. Physically and mentally disabled children and those who are undergoing or have undergone orthodontic treatment were excluded. Data was collected through parent's questionnaire, child perception questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), and then it was statistically tested by non-parametric tests.

Results
A total of 246 children participated in the study; 73.98% of which were females. Malocclusion was found to be absent or minor in (37.6%), definite in (22.4%), severe in (14.4), and very severe in (24.4%) of the participants. The mean CPQ11-14 score was reported as (19.8). Domain-specific scores showed that the highest mean score were for oral symptoms and the lowest were seen for social well-being. The severity of malocclusion was significantly associated with higher mean CPQ11–14 scores in the social well-being domain. Tongue thrusting was the only bad oral habit that was significantly associated with presence of malocclusion (p= .028)

Conclusion
Severe malocclusion appears to have a negative impact on social well-being of children aged 11-14 in Saudi Arabia.

Waad Aldebasi, Abed Al Hadi Hamasha, Aljoud Alsolaihim, Renad Alshunaiber, Haifa Alturki, Lana Alaskar. College of Dentistry – King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
To assess the effect of BMI on DMFT, periodontal pockets, and oral soft tissue variations as well as to assess the impact of several demographic, social, behavioral, and health factors on the relationship between BMI and oral health.

Methods
A systematic random sample of 250 outpatients and their adult companions were included. Questionnaires for sociodemographic, behavioral, medical and physical conditions were distributed and collected. Full clinical oral examinations were conducted to assess dental caries, restorations, extractions, pocket depths and soft tissues changes. Each subject was examined by two different examiners to corroborate the findings. BMI was assessed using a height and weight scale. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics; independent samples t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, Chi-square, and logistic regression analysis were analyzed using SPSS program.

Results
About 67% of participants were either overweight or obese. The mean DMFT was significantly increased by increasing BMI value. However, pocket depths were not significantly related to an increase in BMI. In the bivariate analyses, there were significant associations between BMI and the following variables: age, education, smoking, tooth brushing, hypertension, diabetes, use of medication and traumatic ulcer. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant relationship between BMI with DMFT in the presence of education of less than high schools, current smoking status, presence of any medical problem, and presence of edematous gingiva.

Conclusion
There is an observed relationship between BMI and oral health status. Subjects who had increased BMI were more likely to have a higher DMFT score. Other risk indicators for this relationship include lack of education, presence of edematous gingiva, smoking, and presence of medical condition.

Abdullah AlBawardi, Mohammed Alsalem, Abdulaziz Almudhi. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

Abstract

Objectives
To determine the accuracy of orthodontic bracket placement and to compare bracket height using Boone gauge, Wick type gauge, and Swivel head bracket height gauge among inexperienced dentists.

Methods
A total of 600 teeth bonded with orthodontic brackets by 10 dental interns with no prior bonding experience. Each subject had to bond 20 teeth for each of the height gauges, a total of 60 bonded teeth per subject. Thirty typodonts were set-up inside phantom heads in a pre-clinical lab to simulate actual clinical setting. Ideal positioning measurements were handed out to the interns prior to bonding. Teeth were then removed from typodonts and placed inside acrylic molds; photographs were then taken from a standardized jig and imported into a computer. The position of each bonded bracket was then measured using Adobe Photoshop after calibration, and brackets' vertical positioning errors were measured. The height of the acrylic mold was calculated prior to taking photographs in order to calibrate Photoshop to the exact measurements. This way accuracy can be achieved. All of the photos were taken from one camera that was fixed to a standardized jig in one position. This way it was made sure that reliable measurements were obtained. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. One-Way ANOVA was applied to determine the difference in means between the three groups.

Results
Significant differences were seen between the means of the vertical heights for the three gauges and the ideal measurements (p  0.05). Boone gauge demonstrated higher accuracy than the Wick type gauge, and the Swivel head bracket height gauge, however, the difference between the three gauges was not statistically significant. ANOVA revealed that gauge type and tooth position influence the accuracy of the bracket placement position.

Conclusion
Significant differences were seen between ideal measurement and all height gauges. Boone gauge was the closest to ideal, but that finding was not significant. Accuracy was influenced by the tooth type and position, which indicates a relationship between the tooth type and the used accuracy of the height gauge. So, experience in bracket positioning is an essential factor for an accurate orthodontic bracket position.

Mohammed Alsalem, Abdulelah Aldahash, Waleed Alfayez, Omar Alsammahi, Tariq Alduhaimi, Abdullah Alehaideb, Amritha Geevarghese. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.

Abstract

Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate how dental practitioners and the general population differ in their perception of altered smile aesthetics based on viewing images of a digitally manipulated smile.

Methods
A smile photograph of a female individual was selected and digitally manipulated to create changes in buccal corridor space (BCS), the amount of gingival display, midline diastema, and midline shift. These altered images were rated by two groups: 149 general dental practitioners and 155 randomly selected adult laypeople from the general population. Smile aesthetics scores were calculated and comparisons between groups were performed using Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results
The results showed that profession and gender affected BCS and midline diastema attractiveness ratings (P less than 0.05). Wide BCSs, a gingival display of 3 mm or more, and the presence of a midline diastema of any size were rated as unattractive by all groups.

Conclusion
The findings of this study showed that the general population accepts a wider range of deviation compared with dentists. Therefore, when aesthetic treatment to obtain a harmonious smile is performed, clinicians must be careful about imposing their own beauty norms upon patients. The type and degree of deviation from the norm and the opinion of the patient need to be taken into consideration.

Mohammed Alsalem, Antonio Delgado, Rita Almeida. College of Dentistry, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract Template (250-300 words)

Objectives
To evaluate the effect of mechanical brushing with different commercial toothpastes on the chemical degradation and surface changes of stainless steel orthodontic brackets.

Methods
A number of 50 stainless steel orthodontic brackets were randomly divided into 6 groups: 4 groups treated with fluoridated toothpastes (n=l0) and 2 non-treated groups (n=5). The sample size was selected based on Power analysis. Orthodontic appliances were simulated and immersed in test tubes containing artificial saliva. The treated groups were subjected to 93 brushing cycles (3 brushings per day, during 31 days) with different Sensodyne®toothpastes: Rapid, Repair and Protect, Whitening and Daily Care. The untreated groups were divided into two groups: negative control group exposed to mechanical brushing without toothpaste, and the non-treated group sample, only immersed in artificial saliva. The brackets were submitted to an initial and final evaluation by energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Results
A statistically significant decrease in iron was observed in the experimental group treated with Sensodyne®Rapid. The remaining tested toothpastes and the non-treated groups did not cause changes with statistical significance in the material's chemical composition. Considering the surface changes, a statistically significant increase in the number of the characteristics present on the bracket slots was found in all experimental groups undergoing brushing with toothpastes. Mechanical brushing and immersion in artificial saliva did not result in statistically significant surface alterations.

Conclusion
Sensodyne®Rapid caused chemical degradation of the stainless-steel brackets resulting in a significant decrease of iron. All tested toothpastes caused morphological changes on the brackets surface.

Meshael Abuabat, Ministry of National Guard, National Guards Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives:
The purpose of this review is to identify literature related to occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) increase in terms of conservative and alternative management, clinical considerations and techniques to evaluate the vertical dimension (VD), prosthetic concept, magnitude of increase, adaptation and stability of altered VD and effect on muscle activity and speech.

Methods:
A comprehensive search of the literature was performed by using PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Library with the following keywords: "increasing vertical dimension", "occlusal vertical dimension", "altered vertical dimension", "resting vertical dimension", "rest position" and "tooth wear". Further, the literature search was endorsed by manual searching through reference lists of the selected articles. The search was limited to articles written in English. A total of fifty-seven references were reviewed.

Results:
There are various methods reported in the literature to determine the loss of OVD. Majority preferred fixed method of increasing the VD over removable methods and one study recommended using both. Adaptation to the altered VD is influenced by various factors and several techniques of assessment have been proposed. The potential factors influencing adaptation to the increase in the OVD include: magnitude of OVD increase, adaptation period, method of increasing the OVD and occlusion scheme. The most common techniques of patient adaptation assessment proposed in the literature include: evaluation of subjective patient symptoms, palpation of masticatory muscles inter-occlusal space measurement, radiographic measurement and speech evaluation. Regarding stability of the altered vertical dimension, 2 schools of thought exist. The first expressed concerns regarding relapse of OVD to its original value, phonetics and muscle activity when altering the VD. The second believes that VD is adaptable and that changes in the OVD are maintained because of an alteration in the length of the muscles.

Conclusion:
Increasing the OVD should be considered only if comprehensive prosthodontic rehabilitation is indicated and the determination of OVD increase should be based on more than one method to improve the accuracy of the recording procedure.

Mohammed Misfer Al dosari, Salman Rasheed, Abdullah alonazi, Mohammed alzahrani, Emad alshehri, Ali Aldalaan, Dr. Zainule Rajion. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
The study was aimed to assess level of awareness and knowledge among parents on oral health of their children. .

Methods
This is cross sectional study. A questionnaire survey was carried out among parents which covered various aspects of knowledge, attitude, and their role in oral health of their children. The collected data were tabulated, and presented as frequency distributions for responses to every question.

Results
The study showed that, majority of parents (40.7%) brush their children teeth once daily. Most of the children brush their teeth before sleep (53.4%) and performed mouth rinses after food (70%).
Regarding to the frequency of dental visits, most of the participants responded that they take their child when they feel pain (36.7%). Regarding to diet category, the most common answer was the child consumes 1-3 times of fruits per week (55.6) percent. A significant association was found between educational level and parent's awareness. The higher level of education gave correct answers of awareness questions

Conclusion
From the present study, there is a lack of awareness and knowledge among parents on oral health of their children in Riyadh. There is lack of awareness and knowledge among participants.

Rakan Bahkeet Aldosari, Sarah Almotlaq, Ziyad Alosaimi, Abdullah Altammami, Abdulaziz Fakih,Faisal Alsanee, Ahmed Alhomaied. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Objectives
Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) reflects people's comfort when eating, sleeping, and engaging in social interaction; their self-esteem; and their satisfaction with respect to oral health. Therefore the aim of the study is to evaluate the oral health related quality of life for patients who were attending the Cardiac center in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh and to relate this to age, social status, financial status, dental visits and Smoking habits.

Methods
OHRQoL was distributed to Patients attending Cardiac center in KAMC. After obtaining an ethical approval, a convenient sample size of 300 patients (184 male and 116 female) was used. We excluded patients under the age of 17, patients with mental disability and patients outside National Guard Health Affairs facility. The questionnaires were then analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 22

Results
The mean age of our sample was 49 year. About 34.7% of participants had a high school education, 42.7 were employed, 22.7% had a salary from SAR8700 to SAR11999, and 65.3 were married. About 57.7% had an excellent social life and 40.4 of the participants visited the dentist only if there is pain.
The mean OHIP score of the study participants was 10.8 with statistical significant relation with marital status (p less than 0.004). Singles scored 6.2 while widowed scored 13.6. subjects who lived with their family score the lowest while the subjects who lived in rented home scored higher OHIP scores (p less than 0.002). Finally, after calculating the functional limitation indicators in the questionnaire that were distributed we found that physical pain and physical disability had the highest mean score 0.96 and 0.92 while the lowest was functional limitations 0.53.

Conclusion
This study attempted to provide some insight and attention into oral health related quality of life (OHRQol) of patients attending cardiac center.

Abdulrahman Alotaibi, Mohammad Aleissa,Menwer Alenazi, Faisal Alshehri, Saud Aljohani. DR.Amritha Geevarghese. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
The objective of this study was to evaluate the Prevalence of Medical Emergencies Events in Dental Office and to Assess Dental Team Preparedness.

Methods
This a cross-sectional questionnaire study was performed at National Guard Health Affairs' (NGHA) five dental centers in Riyadh. The sample size was fixed at 200 participants. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, professional qualification, emergency management trainings obtained, number and type of medical emergencies, knowledge and skills in managing / preventing emergencies.

Results
Response rate for the study was 81 percent and considering the missing data and incomplete questionnaires only 153 questionnaires were finally used for analysis. Almost 30 percent of the respondents reported to have encountered a medical emergency during the past three months. In agreement with other studies, vasovagal syncope was reported to be the most common medical emergency faced during dental practice Emergency training received during undergraduate days was found to be better among the dentist group when compared to dental auxiliaries. Almost 90% of the participants felt a real need of improving the emergency management skill.

Conclusion
The study has found that 90.2 percent of the respondents unsatisfied  with their level of training in managing  medical emergencies and therefore need more training. We cannot assume that the data obtained by self-estimation of competence is equal to external evaluation. We are recommending that dentist and dental auxiliary have to take further training in dealing with medical emergencies. The organization have to be sure dentist and dental auxiliary have valid emergency training certification and also having routine check for all the equipment needed for medical emergency.

Abdulmajed Alturki, Abed Al-Hadi Hamasha, Mohammed N. Aldosari, Saud Aljohani, Ibrahim Aljabali, Faris Aljaghwani, Rakan Alotaibi, Nasser Alhufaiyan. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health status and factors associated with access and utilization of dental healthcare services among the elderly male population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the oral health status of the elderly population in Saudi Arabia, 2) to question the access of the elderly population to dental services, and 3) to investigate the link between lack of access and utilization of dental services with poor oral health status if present.

Methods
This study surveyed 350 male participants aged 65 and above living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Both community dwellers and nursing home residents were included. The assessment tools for this study included a questionnaire-based interview and a clinical examination. Data were analyzed using chi-square and T tests.

Results
This study found that only 32.6% of participants are visiting the dental office properly. Participants who are not utilizing dental services were found to have a mean DMF score of 20.98. Moreover, participants who reported transportation, financial reasons, lack of insurance and dental fear as barriers to accessing dental treatment are utilizing dental services less properly than those who didn't. Furthermore, factors like income, place of residence, smoking, and oral hygiene practices significantly affect utilization of dental services by the elderly population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Conclusion
In general, the elderly male population in Saudi Arabia are not accessing and utilizing dental services properly, and consequently, have poor oral health. Additionally, dental insurance, financial reasons, transportation, fear of dental treatment, and lack of perceived needs are significant barriers to accessing and utilizing dental services by the elderly males in Saudi Arabia.

Mohammed Nasser Aldosari, Mohammed Awawdeh, Abdullah Mohammed Altammami
Mohammed Almalki, Emad Masuadi College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh - Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
To evaluate the accuracy of the liner measurements of the face conducted using the Proface system in comparison to measurements from direct anthropometry

Methods
Twelve Soft tissue facial landmarks were identified and labelled on five mannequin heads, direct measurements obtained by three independent assessors separately to assess reproducibility using digital poly-gauge. Every measurement was taken three times to assess repeatability; this was done in three different occasions with minimum of 24 hours interval to eliminate recall bias. In addition, calibrated and standardized 3D images using the Pro-face were captured and the same measurements were obtained using the same protocol. A total of 1080 Readings were recorded.

Results
There was no clinical significance difference in measurements obtained by 3D scans and direct anthropometry. Inter-operator, Intra-operator and Methods mean differences were below one millimeter, which is non-significant clinically. Repeated Measurements ANOVA and Paired t-test confirmed these findings. However, there were significant differences in some of the measurements between the heads, which might be a result of variations in identifying some of the points.

Conclusion
The precision and accuracy found in digital 3D photogrammetry from the Proface system is adequate for the anthropometric needs of nearly most of craniofacial and orthodontic purposes and accurate as compared to direct anthropometry.

Aljazy Hamad Alshubaiki, Mashael Al Thunayan, Sarah Alobaidy, Reem Alwakeel, Jood Alessa, Ruba Alhaudayris, Sara Almotlag. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
This research aims to assess the level of oral health literacy of the caregivers and its association with the oral health status of pediatrics patients

Methods
Convenient sample of 300 caregiver/children were recruited from pediatric dental clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered questionnaires comprised of five components, which was completed by a caregiver. Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK) questionnaire was used to record the Oral health literacy (OHL) of the caregiver. Oral health status of the child was obtained from the child's dental records. This would include the measure the oral health status of the child by recording his/her Decayed-Missing-Filled-Teeth (DMFT) index. Chi-square, Fisher's exact t-test and ANOVA were used.

Results
Results: Caregivers' oral health literacy was associated with children's oral health status. OHL in this study, more than half of the participants were having adequate oral health literacy (53.0%). OHL was correlated with multiple variables and it was found to be significant with education level of the caregivers, monthly income, medical condition of the child, and gender of the caregiver (P less than 0.05).

Conclusion
In this study, we found that caregivers mostly have poor oral health literacy. We assessed the knowledge that the caregivers lack in order to increase the awareness of the health care providers when meeting the caregivers of pediatric patients.

Menwer Awaed Alenazi, Amritha Geevarghese, Nasser Alghofaili, Abdulrahman Obaid, Mohammed Alhamdan, Abdulrahman Alotaibi, Mohammed Aleissa, Menwer Alenazi, Faisal Alshehri. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess the dental practitioners' use of social media, and to investigate the potential benefits of social media use in dental practice.

Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted in selected private and government dental clinics in different areas in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30-items was conveniently distributed to selected private and government dental clinics.

Results
The overall response rate was 77.3%. 51.8% of the participants were using social media within their dental practice. Twitter was the most commonly used program (35.4) while WhatsApp (4 %) was the least used. Education was the main purpose (43.4%) of using social media, while entertainment was the least (8%). 62.3% of participants used social media as marketing tool for improving their dental practice.

Conclusion
The majority of the participants indicated that social media has improved dental practice and become an indicator of successful practice.

Rawan Al-Rethia, Abdulaziz Al-Dayel. Ministry of National Guard, National Guards Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Introduction
Class III malocclusion is primarily a skeletal condition characterized by the protrusion of the mandible, or the retrusion of the maxilla, or both. Ideally, diagnosis of this discrepancy should be made early, during the primary dentition.
Orthodontic treatment alone, or in combination with orthognathic surgery, usually resolves most cases of class III malocclusion after growth completion. Conversely, oral rehabilitation of partially edentulous patients is challenging and sometimes requires surgical, orthodontic and prosthetic treatments.

Case Report
Thirty years old twin sisters were referred to prosthodontic clinics for full mouth rehabilitation in National Guard Dental Center. They reported that they were unhappy with their masticatory function and with the esthetic appearance of their smile. Medical evaluation revealed that the patients presented satisfactory general health. They underwent orthodontic treatment; the older sister did orthognathic surgery to correct the anteroposterior discrepancy between the arches without any prosthetic planning prior to surgery while the younger sister did not.

Intraoral examination revealed that the older sister who had the surgery performed, had multiple missing teeth and almost edge to edge teeth relationship with tendency to class III, the younger sister had an anteroposterior discrepancy between the dental arches and multiple missing teeth. The maxillary and mandibular arches were classified as Kennedy class I for the older sister, and class II modification 1 for both arches for the younger sister.

The optimum treatment objective, in these cases, is to correct the skeletal discrepancies between the maxilla and the mandible. Other essential objectives included are the replacement of missing teeth in both arches, establishment of a stable occlusal relation, and improvement of the patient's facial and dental esthetics.

The younger sister will undergo a comprehensive orthodontic and prosthodontic planning prior to surgery by having her diagnostic wax up on the mock surgery casts ( centric mounting ) , while the older sister underwent the surgery without any prosthetic consultation nor planning
The main goal of this multidisciplinary approach is the reestablishment of facial and dental harmony, functional occlusion, as well as health and stability of the orofacial structures.

The aim of this case report is to compare the end results of treatment of a partially edentulous patient with class III skeletal malocclusion prosthetically planned before or after the orthognathic surgery.

Abdulmajeed Alwohaibi, Fouad Salama, Faika Abdelmegid, Mohamed El-Agamy, Hassan Ka'abi. Ministry of National Guard, National Guards Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives:
The aim of this cross-sectional population-based in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans.

Methods:
A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again post intervention (after rinsing). The collected saliva were prepared for S. mutans calculation per mL of Saliva.

Results:
The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 108(2.622*108), 5.64 *107(1.03*108), 1.17*109(2.012*109) and 2.59*108 (3.668*108) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P=0.001) and green tea (P=0.001) groups was found. The data also showed no significant difference in the mean ranks of number of S. mutans between honey and green tea groups both at baseline (p=0.19) and post intervention (P=0.051).

Conclusion:
A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old Saudi boys. Honey and green tea solutions should be considered as a potential procedure in prevention of caries in children.

Abdulrahman K. Obaid, Nasser Al Shrim, Mohammed AlDosari, Ibrahim Aljabali, Abdullah Altammami, Emad Alshehri. College of Dentistry, King Saud bin Abdulaziz for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Objectives
Children obtain living skills and knowledge from their mothers and up to a specific age they rely on their mothers in forming their habits. Mothers play a critical role in preventing dental problems in children. This research aim to evaluate mother's knowledge about oral health in primary schools of National Guard, Riyadh. Saudi Arabia

Methods
This cross-sectional study was done in King Abdullaziz Iskan City primary schools of National Guard in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 13 primary school received number from (1-13). 2 schools were selected using cluster random sample. 400 students of the selected schools were handled a self-administrated questionnaires to be filled by their mothers after taking the permission of school principle. The questionnaire was categorized into 5 groups with 27 MCQ's. Data entry and processing done on SPSS version 22 software (Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive and inferential data analyses were generated by using the "chi-square test" to test the association between different variables with the level of significance at P/0.05, P-value of equal or less than 0.05 was considered significant in this study.

Results
The completed questionnaires were 257. The response rate is of 64% after data orientation and clearance. Age, income, and level of education were considered in this study to see the relationship between these factors and other various questions related to mothers' knowledge about oral health. Demographic distribution illustrated in table 1. In table 2, all of mothers with or above bachelor degree know that there was relationship between oral and general health while 93% of mothers below bachelor degree know that so there was significance relationship with knowing if there was relationship between oral and general health and mother education level (P value = 0.014). In table 3, family with high income know about fluoride more than family with low income (P Value =.034) also there was significance relationship between family income and number of dental visit (P Value = .022).

Conclusion
Mother's knowledge, about the importance of oral health need to be improved. Coordinated efforts by dentists and other health professionals are required to impart dental health education about oral health and preventive care among mothers.